CHAPTER 9: Wellness Biomarkers
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Research incorporating health-related quality-of-life assessments and self-reported health assessments has found them to be an independent predictor of health outcome and even mortality.
Self-reported health has been shown to be independently associated with an increase in mortality among both those with and without chronic health issues. This is true relative to various socioeconomic and age groups as well as in men, women, and over time.
Immune signaling has now been shown to affect the brain and produce changes in behavior, cognition, and emotion secondary to pro-inflammatory cytokines and is even termed sickness behavior. In such a state, people experience symptoms of weakness, listlessness, altered sleep patterns, increased pain sensitivity, and a loss of motivation and appetite.
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